The Chicago Manual of Style provides distinct citation styles for the humanities and for the sciences.
As with the MLA style of citation, when you write your essay, you will cite your sources in two places:
Location 1: In a footnote in the body of your essay. These citations may be either “in-text” or in a footnote.
Location 2: In a complete citation listed in your bibliography. List all of your sources on a separate page at the end of your essay/report/project.
Footnotes indicate the exact portions of your project that you created using other sources. With a complete bibliography at the end, you can use a short-form footnote to indicate your source. A basic short form for footnotes should include the following items:
AuthorLastName, Title of the Source, Page Numbers.
Here’s an example of what short-form footnotes might look like at the bottom of one of your pages:
- Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil, 98-99
- Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.
Note: The shortened notes used in a footnote direct your reader to the proper full citation in your bibliography. Can you find the full citation for these footnotes in the Bibliography below?
A bibliography will have more complete information about the source, and it is located at the end of your project on a separate piece of paper.
In general, bibliographic entries (citations) use a similar format:
AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. Title (Italicized). Publisher/Website/Webpage, Dates. URL.
Different resources will have different requirements for their citation, so be sure to check your format is correct.
Sources are listed in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name. Single space your entries and leave a blank line between sources.
Here is a sample of what your bibliography might look like:
Boyne, John. The Boy in the Striped Pajamas: A Fable. Oxford:David Fickling Books, 2006.
Dallaire, Rome, and Brent Beardsley. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2003.
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
Citation Formats and Examples:
If you are ready to start citing your sources, go back to the Citation Style Guide Page to find specific formats for your source type.
Looking for More Information?
You can check the Chicago Manual of Style Online or you can use the following guide from the University of British Columbia:Chicago: Getting Started-UBCO