The Chicago Manual of Style provides distinct citation styles for the humanities and for the sciences.
As with the MLA style of citation, when you write your essay, you will cite your sources in two places:
Location 1: In a footnote in the body of your essay. These citations may be either ‘in-text’ or in a footnote, and they serve to direct your reader to the complete citation in the bibliography at the end of your paper.
Location 2: In a complete citation listed in your bibliography. List all of your sources on a separate page at the end of your essay/report/project.
Footnotes indicate the exact portions of your project that you created using other sources. With a complete bibliography at the end, you can use short-form footnotes in the body of your essay to indicate your source. A basic short form for footnotes should include the following items:
AuthorLastName, Title of the Source, Page Numbers (or location).
Here’s an example of what short-form footnotes might look like at the bottom of one of your pages:
- Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil, 98-99
- Thoreau, “Walking,” 182.
- Ibid., 199
- History.com editors, “Trojan War,” https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/trojan-war
- The shortened notes used in a footnote direct your reader to the proper full citation in your bibliography. Can you find the full citation for these footnotes in the Bibliography below?
- Ibid. – If you cite the same resource a second (or third) time, you can replace the citation with ‘Ibid’ (meaning ‘in the same place’). Add a page number to direct readers to a different page in the same source.
- Some teachers/institutions will request a full citation for the first footnote for a source, and some will always require a full citation for websites.
A bibliography will have more complete information about the source, and it is located at the end of your project on a separate piece of paper.
In general, bibliographic entries (citations) use a similar format.
Here is the general format for a book:
AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName. Title (Italicized). City: Publisher, Date.
Here is the general format for a website
AuthorLastName, AuthorFirstName, “Webpage,” Website Name (Italicized), Publisher, URL (Access Date).
Note: If you do not see a website author you can use the term ‘editors’ or ‘contributors’ added to the website host. Here are two examples: ‘Wikipedia Contributors’ or ‘PBS Editors’. This will help you alphabetize your bibliography.
Different resources will have different requirements for their citation, so be sure to check your format is correct.
Sources are listed in alphabetical order according to the author’s last name. Single space your entries and leave a blank line between sources.
Here is a sample of what your bibliography might look like:
Boyne, John. The Boy in the Striped Pajamas: A Fable. Oxford:David Fickling Books, 2006.
Dallaire, Rome, and Brent Beardsley. Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Toronto: Random House Canada, 2003.
History.com editors, “Trojan War,” History.com, A&E Television Networks, https://www.history.com/topics/ancient-history/trojan-war (May 8, 2019)
Lattimore, Richmond, trans. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951.
Pollan, Michael. The Omnivore’s Dilemma: A Natural History of Four Meals. New York: Penguin, 2006.
Thoreau, Henry David. “Walking.” In The Making of the American Essay, edited by John D’Agata, 167–95. Minneapolis: Graywolf Press, 2016.
Citation Formats and Examples:
If you are ready to start citing your sources, go back to the Citation Style Guide Page to find specific formats for your source type.
Looking for More Information?
You can check the Chicago Manual of Style Online or you can use the following guide from the University of British Columbia:Chicago: Getting Started-UBCO