APA Style Guide

The American Psychological Association (APA) developed this citation style and it is generally used in the sciences.

Proper referencing in APA style appears in two locations in your article or report:

Location 1: Place “in-text citations” in the body of your article.

Location 2: Place a complete citation in the References List at the end of your article.

Read on for more details:

“In-Text Citations”

When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by the author’s name and year of publication.

Direct Quotation:

According to Sharpe and Rosell (2003), the dominant behaviours of the beavers were “travelling, foraging, and being in the lodge” (p.1063).

Indirect Quotation:

Soils across the Iron Cove catchment area are enriched by these minerals (Snowdon and Birch 2004).


The Reference List

At the end of the paper, provide the full bibliographic information for each source.  References must be listed in alphabetical order, and each reference should include four elements:

  1. Author’s or editor’s name(s)
  2. Date (of publication)
  3. Title
  4. Publication Information:
    • For books, give the publisher’s name and place of publication and if two or more publisher locations are given, give the location listed first in the book
    • For journals, give volume, issue number and page numbers
    • For websites, give the full Web address (URL)

A typical citation is presented with these component parts:


The above information is from a document created by Ms. Scheiber (Science Department).  Use the link below to view this information and examples (with in-text citations) for specific resource types:

APA: Referencing in Science

Looking for more information?  Here is another document from UBC that you might find helpful:  APA: Quick Guide-UBC

APA: Quick Guide UBC