APA Style Guide

The American Psychological Association (APA) developed this citation style and it is generally used in the sciences.

Proper referencing in APA style involves two parts:

  1. in-text citation,  and…
  2. a complete list of references at the end of a report.

A citation must appear in two places in your paper:

  1. In the body of your text
  2. In the reference list (at the end of your paper)


In the Body of Text

When quoting directly or indirectly from a source, the source must be acknowledged in the text by the author’s name and year of publication.

Direct Quotation:

According to Sharpe and Rosell (2003), the dominant behaviours of the beavers were “travelling, foraging, and being in the lodge” (p.1063).

Indirect Quotation:

Soils across the Iron Cove catchment area are enriched by these minerals (Snowdon and Birch 2004).


The Reference List

At the end of the paper you are to provide the full bibliographic information for each source.  References must be listed in alphabetical order, and each reference should include four elements:

  • Author’s or editor’s name(s)
  • Date (of publication)
  • Title
  • Publication Information:
    • For books, give the publisher’s name and place of publication and if two or more publisher locations are given, give the location listed first in the book
    • For journals, give volume, issue number and page numbers
    • For websites, give the full Web address (URL)

A typical citation is presented with these component parts:


Use the above example to create your citation for your reference list, or view examples (with in-text citations) for the specific resource types listed below:

Book with one author Book with two or more authors
Encyclopedia Film (Video/DVD)
Journal Article (Print) Journal Article (Online)
Magazine Article Newspaper Article

This information is available in a printout created by Ms. K. Scheiber: APA-Referencing in Science

APA: Referencing in Science

Looking for more information?  Here is another document from UBC that you might find helpful:  APA: Quick Guide-UBC

APA: Quick Guide UBC